Author: Nawi Ng
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. The incidence of cardiovascular disease in developed countries has declined recently, partly because of improved knowledge on risk factors of CVDs which direct to preventive measure. On te other hand, developing countries still suffer from the double burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. Many life-style related risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and lack of activity have been reported to increase the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease. However, epidemiological study on these risk factors is rarely done Indonesia despite its important contribution.
Aim: To get general picture of CVDs risk factors in Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia.
Subject and Method: Data was taken from a ongoing surveillance in CHN-RL (Community Health and Nutrition Research Laboratory) research area in Purworejo district 2000 out of 31000 individuals over 35 years old were chosen. Sample was drawn randomly based on computer generated random numbers. Demographic data and data on smoking were collected using questionnaires. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements such as body weight, body height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were performed by trained surveyor. Blood pressure above 140/90 mgHg were categorised as elevated blood pressure.
Result and Discussion: A higher proportion of elevation blood pressure was noted in women (38.5) compared to men (32.1%). Female tended to have higher blood pressure measurements. Overweight and obesity (body mass index (BMI) >= 25) was more common among women. Correlated with WHR (r=0.44, p<0.000). Smoking was common practice in men (54%) and only one hundredth in women. Smokers have lower systolic blood pressure compared to non-smoker, and heavy smoker groups had lower blood pressure reading. Obesity indices were weakly correlated (r<0.20) with systolic and diastolic pressure. BMI>=25 (OR=2.66, CI=1.22-5.77) and obesity based on waist circumference (OR=3.22, CI=2.22-4.69) increased the risk of elevated blood pressure. Elderly has 5.83 times (CI=4.41-7.70) risk of elevated blood pressure compared to 35-44 years old individuals.
Conclusion: Elevated blood pressure and obesity prevalence was high in research area. Females are more inclined to elevated blood pressure and obesity, but the smoking habit favours the women. The risk of elevated blood pressure increases with BMI and obesity indices. However, smoking does not appear to increase the risk of elevated blood pressure. Waist circumference can be used along with BMI and it can provide information about central obesity, which is more related to the risk of disease.